Important Information for 2022 Statistics

Please be advised: due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) data release for 2020/21 is significantly reduced, and less reliable than seen in previous years (full explanation available here).
Due to this, it will not be possible to update all of the below tables, make comparisons with data releases for other years, or to draw conclusions about recent poverty trends.
Therefore, the 2020/21 HBAI dataset will not be included in the Leeds Poverty Factbook. Where HBAI is the data source for tables in the Leeds Poverty Factbook, the 2019/20 HBAI dataset will instead be referred to as the most up to date statistics, until the next HBAI data release (due March 2023).

Understanding In-work Poverty

In-work Poverty data can provide an indication that a significant proportion of people in work are needing to claim benefits or tax credits because they are not earning enough to pay their bills. In-work poverty can occur due to problems with the nature of work at the bottom end of the labour market. Jobs that are low paid, low skilled and offer zero-hour contracts contribute to in-work poverty.

In-Work and Workless Households in Relative Poverty UK Snapshot 

Table 5.1

Economic status of household BHC AHC
No % No %
All adults in work 1.8 7.1 2.5 9.8
At least one adult in work, but not all 2.3 21.8 3.0 28.7
Workless households 2.2 50.0 2.6 58.2
Source: DWP, Households below average income (HBAI) March 2021

Before Housing Cost (BHC), 7.1% of working age adults in the UK live in households where everyone is in work yet they are still in relative poverty. This affects an estimated 1.8m adults in the UK.  After Housing Cost (AHC) this figure moves up to 2.5m adults being affected. BHC, 21.8% of working age adults in the UK live in households where at least one adult is in work and live in relative poverty. This affects an estimated 2.3m adults in the UK.  AHC this figure moves up to 3m adults being affected. BHC, 50% of working age adults in the UK live in households where no adults are in work and live in relative poverty. This affects an estimated 2.2m adults in the UK.  AHC this figure moves up to 2.6m adults (58%)being affected.

In-Work and Workless Households in Relative Poverty Leeds Estimate

Table 5.2

At least one adult in work BHC AHC
No % No %
UK 4.1 10.2% 5.5 13.7%
Leeds 52,803 10.2% 70,822 13.7%
Source: DWP, Households below average income (HBAI) 2021 and ONS APS Mid-year Population Estimates 2019

Nationally it is estimated that 4.1 million adults that are in poverty are from households where at least 1 person is in work (BHC). This affected almost 10.2% of all working age adults in the UK in 2019/20. If 10.2% is applied to the working age population of Leeds, 52,803 Leeds adults could be affected by in-work poverty.

5.5 million adults that are in poverty are from households where at least 1 person is in work (AHC). This affected 13.7% of all working age adults in the UK in 2019/20. If 13.7% is applied to the working age population of Leeds, 70,822 Leeds adults could be affected by in-work poverty. (The working age population of Leeds in 2019 was 516,100.)